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1 edition of The effect of soluble salts on the physical properties of soils found in the catalog.

The effect of soluble salts on the physical properties of soils

R. O. E. Davis

The effect of soluble salts on the physical properties of soils

by R. O. E. Davis

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  • 22 Currently reading

Published by G.P.O. in Washington, [D.C.] .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Salts in Soils

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby R.O.E. Davis
    SeriesBulletin / U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils -- 82, Bulletin (United States. Bureau of Soils) -- no. 82.
    ContributionsUnited States. Dept. of Agriculture, United States. Bureau of Soils, United States. Government Printing Office
    The Physical Object
    Pagination38 p., 6 leaves of plates :
    Number of Pages38
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL25526284M
    OCLC/WorldCa82788359

    Soil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological and anthropogenic processes working on soil parent material. Soil is said to be formed when organic matter has accumulated and colloids are washed downward, leaving deposits of clay, humus, iron oxide, carbonate, and gypsum, producing a distinct layer. The first book, Methods of Soil Analysis, Microbiological and Biochemical Properties (Part 2), was pub­ lished in as SSSA Book Series No. 5. This book, Methods of Soi/Analysis: Chemical Methods, is Part 3 of SSSA Book Series No. 5. This book contains 44 chapters, written by 70 authors from throughout the Size: 2MB.

    soluble indicates, these salts can easily be leached out of the upper feet of surface soil under good soil moisture and drainage conditions. In contrast to saline soils, sodic soils have excessive levels of sodium (Na+) adsorbed at the cation exchange sites (Figure 3). Soil sodicity causes degradation of soil structure. Laboratory Exercises to Demonstrate Effects of Salts on Plants and Soils D. R. Clark, C. J. Green,* and J. A. Gordon To illustrate salt effects on soil physical properties, a hy-draulic conductivity demonstration adapted from Thien and sual demonstrations of the effects of salts on plants and soils should enhance student learning.

    When salts more soluble than calcium carbonate and gypsum are present in the soil and affect crop growth and yield of most crops these soils are considered salt of these soils have an Electrical Conductivity of more than 4 Ohms/cm. Many of them are classified as presence of salts affects the plant uptake of nutrients and the microbiological . The second effect occurs when so- dium salts predominate. It is more per- manent than the first because adsorbed sodium usually persists after most of the soluble salts are removed. Saline soils contain excessive amounts of soluble salts only. Alkali soils con- tain excessive adsorbed sodium. Be- cause leaching may have occurred pre- viously.


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The effect of soluble salts on the physical properties of soils by R. O. E. Davis Download PDF EPUB FB2

This banner text can have markup. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation. Get this from a library. The effect of soluble salts on the physical properties of soils.

[R O E Davis; United States. Department of Agriculture.; United States. Bureau of Soils.]. Under humid conditions the soluble salts originally present in soil materials and those formed by the weathering of minerals are generally carried downward into the ground water and are transported ultimately to the oceans.

Saline soils are, therefore, practically non-existent in Cited by:   Alkali or alkaline soils have been defined as soils with high pH-value, which is caused by excessive (usually more than 15% of the exchange sites) amount of exchangeable sodium ions or/and soluble salts capable of alkaline hydrolysis.

In these reactions two soluble salts are mixed together to form new salts, one of which is insoluble in water. Some salts are only sparingly soluble in water and when the constituent ions of such compounds are in the same solution, the solid is formed when the solubility product of the solide is exceeded.

soluble salts are present and soils are slowly permeable. Importation of water effect on plant growth or soil properties, the reduction in salt load should be bene- physical forces, air entrapment, disper- sion, and swelling. Once the particles. When the concentration of soluble salts increases to a high level then it produces toxic effect directly to plants such as root injury, inhibition of seed germination etc.

Alkali or Sodic Soils: Excess exchangeable sodium in alkali soils affects both. The three main types of salt-affected soils are saline, sodic and saline-sodic (Q&A #1).

Saline soils contain a high amount of soluble salts, primarily calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and potassium (K+), whereas sodic soils are dominated by sodium (Na+). Saline-sodic soils have both high salt and Na+ content.

Salts in soil can affect. However, SAPs’ repeated absorption and release of water has periodic and unstable effects on both soil’s physical and chemical properties and on the growth of plant roots, which complicates modeling of water movement in SAP-treated soils.

In this paper, we proposea model of soil water movement for SAP-treated soils. Effects of Soil Salinity and Alkalinity on the Growth of Crops: Saline and Saline-Alkali soils contain excessive quantities of salts, which increase the osmotic pressure of the soil solution.

So root hairs absorb less water from saline soils, which contain excessive amounts of chlorides, harmful for crop growth. soluble salt levels can reduce the growth of most crops. Some crops are more resistant to higher salts levels than others, but as salt lev-els increase, plant water uptake decreases.

This causes chemical drought in the plant, even though soil moisture may be adequate. Understanding Soil Salinity and Soluble Salts mmhos/cm Rating Effects. Soluble Salts in Soils and Plant Health High soluble salts in the soil will compromise plant health and yield. Fertilizers are salts that contain various plant nutrients.

Excessive soluble salts can accumulate in the soil when excess fertilizer is used or when fertilizer is applied repeatedly without sufficient water to leachFile Size: KB. Owing to the degraded physical, chemical and biological conditions in salt-affected soils, nutrient deficiencies and ion toxicities are likely to occur in such soils (Qadir and Schubert, ).Excessive soluble salts and/or exchangeable Na in soil may affect availability and acquisition of essential nutrients either via direct competition between ions or by the increased Cited by: Sodium has the opposite effect of salinity on soils.

The primary physical processes associated with high sodium concentrations are soil dispersion and clay platelet and aggregate swelling. The forces that bind clay particles together are disrupted when too many large sodium ions come between them.

The salt-dilution effect that occurs in fine-textured soils, because of their higher moisture retention, is thus auto-matically taken into account. For this reason, the conductivity of the saturation extract (EC,) can be used directly for appraising the effect of soil salinity on plant growth.

Table 1 gives some of the experimental data sup. sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II) and two BFGD rates.

Excess salts keep the clay in saline soils in a flocculated state so that these soils generally have good physical properties.

Structure is generally good and tillage characteristics and permeability to water are even better than those of non-saline soils. excess neutral soluble salts in soils may also interfere with the normal nutrition of. Saline soils. Saline soils contain enough soluble salts to injure plants. They are characterized by white or light brown crusts on the surface.

Saline soils usually have an EC of more than 4 mmho cm Salts generally found in saline soils include NaCl (table salt), CaCl2, gypsum (CaSO4), magnesium sulfate, potassium chloride and sodium sulfate.

The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, Cited by: At “normal” concentrations, soluble salts have little harmful effect on plant growth; however, if excessive soluble salts exist, plant injury, such as reduced germination rates and leaf burning, or death may occur.

The usual method to quantify the soluble salts concentration in soils is File Size: 30KB. Two clay soils, one containing free carbonates and the other almost neutral in reaction, were saturated with Ca or Mg and treated with solutions of different salts of K and Na in the laboratory.

The strength of artificial crusts in Ca-saturated soil was decreased by Cl and NO3 salts of K and Na and tended to be increased by SO4, HCO3 and CO3salts of Na; in eraste made with K salts Cited by: 2.This is called the salt-specific or ion-excess effect of salinity (Greenway and Munns, ).

Symptoms may include restricted root growth, marginal or leaf tip burning/browning, inhibited flowering, reduced vigor and reduced crop yields. Visual Diagnosis of Salt-Affected Soils Accumulation of salts can result in three soil conditions: saline.

Salts applied in late winter generally result in more damage than salts applied in early winter because there is a better chance the salt is leached away before active root growth in spring.

The volume of fresh water applied to soils also impacts the amount of salts leached away, while rainfall can wash salt from leaves.